Sunday, August 3, 2008

Modern History of Artificial Intelligence

Modern History of Artificial Intelligence
Intelligence is the computational part of the ability to achieve goals in the world. Artificial intelligence can be defined as the study and design of intelligent agents, where an intelligent agent is a system that perceives its environment and take actions which maximize its chances of success.

Scientists began their research in artificial intelligence based on discoveries in neurology, mathematical theory, cybernetics and new invention in computer which based on mathematical reasoning.

In the 17th century, Descartes gave advent to more advanced thinking when he proposed the idea that animals are, in theory, nothing more than complex machine. Thomas Hobbes wrote in his famous Leviathan, which basically translates to “reason is nothing more than reckoning.” The idea that reasoning in human beings can be simplified into algebraic calculations was further discussed by Gottfried Leibniz, who coined the term characteristica universalis or universal language of reasoning.

The true driving factor of Artificial Intelligence came in the 1940’s with the creation of the electronic computer. Advancements in computer theory and computer science led to advancements in Artificial Intelligence as well. Since machines could now begin to manipulate numbers and symbols, this manipulation was thought to somehow be the basics of human thought. Princeton’s Walter Pitts and Warren McCulloch began work on the neural network, which attempted to give a mathematical description of the human brain.

In 1956 John MacCarthy from MIT coined the term ‘artificial intelligence’ as the topic of at Dartmouth Conference. He then invented the Lisp language in 1958. Dartmouth Conference was held at Dartmouth College in summer of 1956. Those who attended would become the leaders of artificial intelligence for many decades.

Within seven years after the conference, artificial intelligent began to pick up momentum. The ideas formed before were re-examined and further research was placed. In 1961, James Slagle in his PhD dissertation at MIT wrote the first symbolic integration program, SAINT which can solved calculus problems. In 1964, Danny Bobrow from MIT shows that computers can understand natural language enough to solve algebra world programs

In 1980 First National Conference of the American Association of Artificial Intelligence held at Stanford.

In early 1990s, The National Center for Supercomputing Applications at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign develop and release the first widely used web browser, called Mosaic. The military put Artificial Intelligence based hardware to the test of war during Desert Storm. Artificial Intelligence-based technologies were used in missile systems, heads-up-displays, and other advancements. Artificial Intelligence has also made the transition to the home. With the popularity of the Artificial Intelligence computer growing, the interest of the public has also grown. Applications for the Apple Macintosh and IBM compatible computer, such as voice and character recognition have become available.

Late 1990’s, web crawls and other artificial intelligence information extraction programs become essential in widespread use of the World Wide Web.
Modern History of Artificial Intelligence
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